In the WTO, non-preferential rules of origin are no more harmonised than in free trade agreements. Despite considerable efforts, the work programme for the harmonization of non-preferential rules of origin has not yet made significant progress, meaning that there are still no common rules for non-preferential purposes in the WTO. During the so-called „transitional period“, the formulation and implementation of non-preferential rules are literally left to the discretion of Members.  The only difference with preferential rules of origin is that non-preferential rules of origin are more restrictive in WTO agreements, including the Rules of Origin Agreement and the Trade Facilitation Agreement.  As part of a joint initiative with the WCO and the WTO, the International Trade Centre introduces the rules of the Original Ombudsman which, in hundreds of trade agreements, provides free and user-friendly access to the ITC database containing rules of origin and original documents. The moderator is also associated with the huge databases on tariffs and trade agreements established since 2006 by the ITC Market Access Card and maintained continuously, leading to a unique market intelligence solution that allows companies, particularly in developing countries, to benefit from trade agreements around the world. The moderator currently contains data on more than 230 free trade agreements applied by more than 190 countries, as well as non-preferential regulations from the EU, the Us and Switzerland. This database will be gradually expanded, with the ultimate goal of covering more than 400 free trade agreements and preferential regimes currently active worldwide. There is no roo standard in international trade. They are rather special for any free trade agreement and are negotiated to measure, reflecting the objectives of the parties to that agreement. As the rules of origin are applied at the national level, it is the national institutions that deal directly with the certification and verification procedures.
The competent authorities differ from country to country and also differ between trade agreements.